Template includes


A set of HTML templating macros, part of the standard Scipio Templating Toolkit
for Freemarker language (http://freemarker.org/docs) – master include.
Automatically included at all times, unless overridden by properties or themes.
Intended to be swappable.
Includes all other default Scipio standard markup macros.

Alongside this master include exists a global variables and styles definition file,
htmlVariables.groovy, which defines global styles used by most macros and utilities
(currently has no HTML documentation – mostly relevant to theme writers – see source).


  • Currently targeted toward Foundation CSS.
  • 2016-10-05: Value escaping/encoding behavior has changed and is now generally performed by macros
    at point-of-use, consistently. See the related section below.

  • Macros should almost never use "request" object directly – use setRequestVar/getRequestVar/other.

Macro Interfaces

Scipio standard macros have versatile interfaces. There are template-facing macros (most of which support
an advanced arguments interface) and a separate set of delegated macros for theme implementation (markup macros).

General remarks:

  • All macros expect to be invoked using named parameters only (always <@row class="my-class">, never <@row "my-class">)
  • Functions in Freemarker only support positional arguments, but some Scipio functions support
    an "args" argument as a map, which emulates named arguments. This is also done
    as part of the advanced args interface (documented below).
  • Many macros have advanced, low-level open/close controls for esoteric structure control where the macro
    markup open and close tags and logic needs to be split or skipped. Generally their defaults are true; must specify
    <@macroname open=true close=false />

    for open-only and

    <@macroname close=true open=false />

    for close-only.
    Use of these in templates is discouraged but occasionally forcefully needed.

  • Patterns described here are often workarounds for limitations in the FTL language.
  • The advanced args pattern described below is primarily designed to be simple to use from templates, almost
    indistinguishable from regular macro calls, but more powerful.
    It also provides more power for theme overrides; however, theme overrides must be careful in their use of it;
    it's better for themes to use simple markup overrides instead, which do not use the advanced pattern.

Template-facing macros (advanced args pattern):

  • These macros such as @field, @row, @heading, etc. are meant to be
    used in templates and can also be overridden directly by themes (though not preferred method).
    Most of these use a versatile args pattern that looks like:
    <#macro macroname args={} inlineArgs...>
  • When called from templates, these macros accept regular inlined parameters as well as a map of parameters
    using the args map parameter. Intuitively, inline args have priority over args passed in the args map and in most cases simply override them.
    This pattern is especially needed for themes to override the templating-facing macros cleanly and to provide a way
    for template code to pass map content as arguments (not supported by Freemarker). It can be exploited
    in a large number of ways (pass maps from groovy, callback macros, simplifying repeat calls, etc.) otherwise not possible.
    Some non-template-facing macros also use this pattern, and some functions partly use it as well (but
    Freemarker functions do not support named parameters at this time, so only partial pattern).
    Some macros with this pattern also accept additional arbitrary inlined parameters to be used as extra HTML attributes (that can be passed
    both in args map or inlineArgs, but usually it's used to emulate HTML with macros, thus inlineArgs);
    these are not declared in the default argument lists; see individual macro documentation;
    they are equivalent in usage to regular FTL interface macros that take extra attrbs as varargs
    <#macro myhtmlmacro (...) inlineAttribs...>
    Extra attributions are handled by a system that records args names in a "allArgNames" member in
    the args map through the mergeArgMaps function. See mergeArgMaps function in utilities library for more details.
  • Interface:
    <#assign name_defaultArgs = { (...), "passArgs":{} }>
    <#macro macroname args={} inlineArgs...>
    • args: Macro args map. Map of parameters to pass to the macro. It can be a bean-wrapped map (from groovy/widgets) or simple FTL hash.
      IMPL NOTE:
      The implementation should pass this to mergeArgMaps or equivalent function (see examples).
    • inlineArgs...: Macro inline args. Map of parameters passed inline to the macro via usual macro call syntax.
      these have priority over args and generally will replace entries in the args map, with rare exceptions where noted.
      IMPL NOTE:
      The implementation should pass this to mergeArgMaps or equivalent function (see examples).
    • passArgs: Pass-through args. Map of args that should be passed along the major calls made by this macro or in other words
      passed through the whole call stack. It allows arguments to pass through from the templating-facing macro
      to the internal implementations such as markup macros, similar to a context. This is needed especially to allow theme overrides
      to communicate with their markup macros without the use of globals, but it may be used for any other purpose.
      Be careful about using sufficiently unique names.
      IMPL NOTE:
      Overriding macros should avoid overriding this map;
      always add new members to it instead. e.g.
      <@somemacro passArgs=(passArgs + {"myParam":"myValue")>

Markup macros (theme overrides):

  • These macros such as @row_markup, @heading_markup, etc. containing
    the "_markup" name are overridable by themes to provide alternative HTML and sometimes javascript markup.
    This is the simplest and preferred way to provide alternate markup.
    They do not have a versatile interface like the template-facing macros and are intentionally kept
    • Nevertheless, they have some requirements: these macros should always end their parameter list with
      a varargs catch-all parameter "catchArgs…" so that future changes do not backwards break compability
      with themes.
  • Interface:
    <#macro macroname_markup (...) origArgs={} passArgs={} catchArgs...>
    • origArgs: Original caller's args. map of complex parameters usually roughly as they were received by the calling macro. Rarely-used and should be
      avoided in favor of the other simpler macro arguments passed by the caller, which are usually very similar. Is
      needed in rare cases where the simpler macro arguments are too simplistic or don't provide all the information needed.
      In general orig args do not come from a template-facing macro but from an intermediate macro
      (such as @fieldset_core or @field_input_widget). This is the intention, as the former would break
      abstraction too much. In many cases however, the calling macro may happen to be
      a template-facing macro. Do not rely on this while using origArgs.
    • passArgs: Pass-through args. Map of args that are passed through from the template-facing macro to the parent/caller macro to
      this macro or in other words passed through the whole call stack, similar to a context. This is needed especially to allow theme overrides
      to communicate with their markup macros without the use of globals, but it may be used for any other purpose.
      Be careful about using sufficiently unique names.
    • catchArgs: Catch-all args. Simply catches all the parameters the macro doesn't need to handle
      The previous parameters may be omitted and caught with catchArgs if unused.

Value escaping

2016-10-12: Added for 1.14.2.

Macros now generally implement html escaping, javascript string value escaping, and other escaping
for strings at point-of-use in their markup implementations, across the board, irrespective
of and in addition to automatic html escaping performed by the ofbiz freemarker renderer.
Callers can expect that string parameters will consistently be escaped for html by macros (either as element markup ("htmlmarkup") or attributes ("html")) and, when,
applicable and possible, javascript ("js"), and some others, except where otherwise noted.

This does not apply to nested content (#nested) which receives no extra
escaping, nor to parameters that emulate nested content (usually named xxxContent or so), nor to parameters
that contain whole blocks of javascript code (read below). Nested content escaping must be handled by the caller, which
in most cases for html is done automatically by the renderer's automatic html escaping. Exceptions will be noted in macro docs.

Implementation and manipulation of escaping behavior is mainly done through the functions #escapeVal, #rawString and #wrapAsRaw.

Details and features:

  • Double-escaping prevention: Values affected by screen renderer auto-escaping can be passed as-is to macros, and the
    macros will prevent double-escaping automatically.
    So the following (majority of cases) will work:
    <@somemacro value=screenVar1/> <#- good; here, screenVar1 came from a groovy script, screen widget field assignment, or a call through {{{Static[""]}}} ->

    However, if a screen context variable is composed in or coerced to string before being passed to the macro, such as:

    <@somemacro value="${screenVar1}: ${screenVar2}"/> <#- bad ->
    <@somemacro value=screenVar1?string/> <#- bad ->
    <#assign macroValue>${screenVar1}: ${screenVar2}</#assign> <#- bad ->
    <@somemacro value=macroValue/>

    then double-escaping will occur because the coercion causes escaping to happen before the macro receives the value, and all type information is lost.
    The caller must prevent this using #rawString (or equivalent):

    <@somemacro value="${rawString(screenVar1)}: ${rawString(screenVar2)}"/> <#- good ->
    <@somemacro value=rawString(screenVar1)?string/> <#- works, but do not use; completely redundant ->
    <#assign macroValue>${rawString(screenVar1)}: ${rawString(screenVar2)}</#assign> <#- good ->
    <@somemacro value=macroValue/>

    Note that none of these constructs will allow passing html markup; it is all escaped by the macro (unrelated to #rawString).

  • Bypassing and markup: If the caller needs to pass preformed html markup to an escaped parameter, then #wrapAsRaw can be used.
    For example, to add some html elements:
    <@somemacro value=wrapAsRaw("<strong>${screenVar1}</strong>: <em>${screenVar2}</em>", 'htmlmarkup')/> <#- note the absence of rawString; var auto-escape wanted here ->

    However, this form of call limits the macro by force-feeding it data in html format only. A better way is to specify both htmlmarkup and raw string
    so that the macro can select the most appropriate variant as needed, which future-proofs it (e.g. against switch to javascript or javascript additions):

    <@somemacro value=wrapAsRaw({
      "htmlmarkup": "<strong>${screenVar1}</strong>: <em>${screenVar2}</em>",
      "raw": "${rawString(screenVar1)}: ${rawString(screenVar2)}"

    Practical example (login.ftl):

    <#assign labelUsername><i class="${styles.icon!} ${styles.icon_user!}"></i></#assign>
    <@field ... label=wrapAsRaw({'htmlmarkup':labelUsername, 'raw':rawLabel('CommonUsername')})/>
    Using #rawString (or equivalent) alone is simpler and so preferable to #wrapAsRaw when possible (no markup needed),
    but both will be safe as long as #wrapAsRaw specifies the correct, exact language(s) escaped.
    When #wrapAsRaw contains a "raw" alternative, it is as good as #rawString; but omitting "raw" can hurt the compatibility
    and future of templates that use the macros.
    For html, there is both a "htmlmarkup" and a "html" language identifier:
    "htmlmarkup" can be passed markup such as elements, as it will be inserted only in html code body where such is safe; but it will
    not be used in html attributes.
    "html" (normally escaped using freemarker's ?html or equivalent) on the other hand must be safe to insert into html attributes,
    so caller must not pass markup elements in it. Its use is more limited and only really useful for rare cases
    where data was escaped as html too early (such that #rawString has no effect).
    See the related functions (#wrapAsRaw, #escapeVal) for further details.
  • attribs/inlineAttribs: Macros that accept extra arbitrary attribs will automatically escape the values for html attributes.
    However, if the attribs contain any javascript, the macros cannot be aware of this, and the caller must escape the javascript.
    <@somemacro attribs={"somejsattrib": "javascript:someFunction('${escapeVal(screenVar1, 'js')}');"}/> <#- (recommended) ->
    <@somemacro attribs={"somejsattrib": "javascript:someFunction('${rawString(screenVar1)?js_string}');"}/> <#- (also works, but not recommended) ->

    This also applies to javascript html attributes in general, such as events.

  • Javascript: Note that escaping javascript typically means escaping the values inserted as string literals, and never the whole javascript code or html attribute (e.g. events).
    Arbitrary javascript code cannot be escaped safely; only strings and text within string literals ("" '') can be.
    Therefore, macros which accept entire pieces of javascript code cannot escape it and
    the caller is responsible for escaping the strings inserted within it (using #escapeVal or ?js_string).
  • URL macro parameters: URL macro parameters have some extra special handling and are escaped by macros as full URLs.
    See #escapeFullUrl for details.


Assumes utilities.ftl and htmlVariables.groovy included.

(No public definitions in this section)


Code this file is responsible for defining. Intended for use in production templates.

(No public definitions in this section)